Globally, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease, most notably hemorrhagic colitis, and post-diarrheal sequela, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) . Cattle are a major reservoir of STEC, with approximately half of the cases in humans attributable to foodborne exposure . Prevention of human illness has mainly been through food safety measures . Despite extensive research, no other generally accepted and effective preventive measures or therapies for STEC infections in human patients are available . Many questions remain about STEC virulence factors, pathogenesis, detection, and other aspects that necessitate a continuation of basic and applied research on a wide front. This Special Issue includes 14 papers (nine articles, two communications, one review, one comment, and one reply) that collectively provide novel information on the epidemiology [4,5,6,7], virulence factors [7,8,9,10], and pathogenesis [11,12,13] of STEC, and the molecular structure or toxicity [14,15,16] and immunodetection  of Shiga toxin.
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