Research – Propionate and Butyrate Inhibit Biofilm Formation of Salmonella Typhimurium Grown in Laboratory Media and Food Models

MDPI

Salmonella is among the most frequently isolated foodborne pathogens, and biofilm formed by Salmonella poses a potential threat to food safety. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionate and butyrate, have been demonstrated to exhibit a beneficial effect on promoting intestinal health and regulating the host immune system, but their anti-biofilm property has not been well studied. This study aims to investigate the effects of propionate or butyrate on the biofilm formation and certain virulence traits of Salmonella. We investigated the effect of propionate or butyrate on the biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) SL1344 grown in LB broth or food models (milk or chicken juice) by crystal violet staining methods. Biofilm formation was significantly reduced in LB broth and food models and the reduction was visualized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Biofilm metabolic activity was attenuated in the presence of propionate or butyrate. Meanwhile, both SCFAs decreased AI-2 quorum sensing based on reporter strain assay. Butyrate, not propionate, could effectively reduce bacterial motility. Bacterial adhesion to and invasion of Caco-2 cells were also significantly inhibited in the presence of both SCFAs. Finally, two SCFAs downregulated virulence genes related to biofilm formation and invasion through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These findings demonstrate the potential application of SCFAs in the mitigation of Salmonella biofilm in food systems, but future research mimicking food environments encountered during the food chain is necessitated. View Full-Text

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