Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness associated with high hospitalizations and mortality rates. This bacterium can persist in food associated environments for years with isolates being increasingly linked to outbreaks. This review presents a discussion of genomes of Listeria monocytogenes which are commonly regarded as persisters within food production environments, as well as genes which are involved in mechanisms aiding this phenotype. Although criteria for the detection of persistence remain undefined, the advent of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the development of bioinformatic tools have revolutionized the ability to find closely related strains. These advancements will facilitate the identification of mechanisms responsible for persistence among indistinguishable genomes. In turn, this will lead to improved assessments of the importance of biofilm formation, adaptation to stressful conditions and tolerance to sterilizers in relation to the persistence of this bacterium, all of which have been previously associated with this phenotype. Despite much research being published around the topic of persistence, more insights are required to further elucidate the nature of true persistence and its implications for public health.
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