Research – High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment Ensures the Microbiological Safety of Human Milk Including Bacillus cereus and Preservation of Bioactive Proteins Including Lipase and Immuno-Proteins: A Narrative Review

MDPI

Breast milk is the nutritional reference for the child and especially for the preterm infant. Breast milk is better than donated breast milk (DHM), but if breast milk is not available, DHM is distributed by the Human Milk Bank (HMB). Raw Human Milk is better than HMB milk, but it may contain dangerous germs, so it is usually milk pasteurized by a Holder treatment (62.5 °C 30 min). However, Holder does not destroy all germs, and in particular, in 7% to 14%, the spores of Bacillus cereus are found, and it also destroys the microbiota, lipase BSSL and immune proteins. Another technique, High-Temperature Short Time (HTST 72 °C, 5–15 s), has been tried, which is imperfect, does not destroy Bacillus cereus, but degrades the lipase and partially the immune proteins. Therefore, techniques that do not treat by temperature have been proposed. For more than 25 years, high hydrostatic pressure has been tried with pressures from 100 to 800 MPa. Pressures above 400 MPa can alter the immune proteins without destroying the Bacillus cereus. We propose a High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) with four pressure cycles ranging from 50–150 MPa to promote Bacillus cereus germination and a 350 MPa Pressure that destroys 106 Bacillus cereus and retains 80–100% of lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and 64% of IgAs. Other HHP techniques are being tested. We propose a literature review of these techniques. View Full-Text

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