This study investigated the effect of edible coating (EC), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and edible coating + modified atmosphere packaging (EC + MAP) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut pineapples during storage at 4 °C. The quality differences were analyzed by measuring the quality, physiological indicators, and total microbial counts. After 8 d of storage, the brightness (L*) values of the EC + MAP and control samples were 72.76 and 60.83, respectively. The water loss and respiratory rate of the EC + MAP were significantly inhibited from 0% and 29.33 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1 to 4.13% and 43.84 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1, respectively. Furthermore, the fresh-cut pineapples treated with EC + MAP presented a good appearance, with lower total soluble solids (TSS) and relative conductivity and higher titratable acid (TA), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenol content, and firmness compared to the other treatment groups. At the end of storage, the EC + MAP samples exhibited the lowest polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 28.53 U, 60.37 U, and 1.47 nmol·g−1, respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of EC + MAP treatment exceeded that of EC or MAP alone, preventing key problems involving the surface browning and microbiological safety of the fresh-cut pineapples. The results showed that EC + MAP treatment was more successful in maintaining the storage quality and extending the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapples.