The influence of ultrasound combined with sodium hypochlorite (US-NaClO) treatment on microorganisms and quality of fresh-cut cucumber during storage were investigated. Ultrasound (400 W, 40 kHz, US: 5, 10 and 15 min) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO: 50, 75, 100 ppm) were used to treat fresh-cut cucumber in a single or combined treatment and stored at 4 °C for 8 days and analyzed for texture, color and flavor. The results showed that US-NaClO treatment had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of microorganisms during storage. It could significantly reduce (p < 0.05) the number of microorganisms by 1.73 to 2.17 log CFU/g. In addition, US-NaClO treatment reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during storage (4.42 nmol/g) and water mobility, and maintained the integrity of the cell membrane, delayed the increase of weight loss (3.21%), reduced water loss, thus slowing down the decline of firmness (9.20%) of fresh-cut cucumber during storage. The degradation of chlorophyll (6.41%) was reduced to maintain the color of freshly cut cucumbers. At the same time, US-NaClO could maintain the content of aldehydes, the main aromatic substance of cucumber, and reduced the content of alcohols and ketones during storage. Combined with the electronic nose results, it could maintain the cucumber flavor at the end of the storage period and reduce the odor produced by microorganisms. Overall, US-NaClO was helpful to inhibit the growth of microorganisms during storage, improve the quality of fresh-cut cucumber.