Research – Recent Advances in the Mechanisms and Regulation of QS in Dairy Spoilage by Pseudomonas spp.

MDPI

Food spoilage is a serious issue dramatically impacting the worldwide need to counteract food insecurity. Despite the very expensive application of low temperatures, the proper conservation of fresh dairy products is continuously threatened at different stages of production and commercialization by psychrotrophic populations mainly belonging to the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria cause discolouration, loss of structure, and off-flavours, with fatal implications on the quality and shelf-life of products. While the effects of pseudomonad decay have been widely reported, the mechanisms responsible for the activation and regulation of spoilage pathways are still poorly explored. Recently, molecule signals and regulators involved in quorum sensing (QS), such as homoserine lactones, the luxR/luxI system, hdtS, and psoR, have been detected in spoiled products and bacterial spoiler species; this evidence suggests the role of bacterial cross talk in dairy spoilage and paves the way towards the search for novel preservation strategies based on QS inhibition. The aim of this review was to investigate the advancements achieved by the application of omic approaches in deciphering the molecular mechanisms controlled by QS systems in pseudomonads, by focusing on the regulators and metabolic pathways responsible for spoilage of fresh dairy products. In addition, due the ability of pseudomonads to quickly spread in the environment as biofilm communities, which may also include pathogenic and multidrug-resistant (MDR) species, the risk derived from the gaps in clearly defined and regulated sanitization actions is underlined. View Full-Text

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