Research – An integrative review of hygiene practice studies in the food service sector


This article reviews the recent literature on studies relevant to hygiene practices of food service workers. A total of 32 articles were chosen for evaluation from a systematic search of the published literature from 2014 to 2019. For the assessment of hygiene practices, hand washing as a measurement item and observation as a method were most frequently used. Factors influencing hygiene practices were categorized as internal and external variables. Internal variables were knowledge; psychological factors such as attitude, risk perception, self-efficacy, and optimistic bias; and food handlers’ sociodemographic characteristics such as work experience and exposure to hygiene training. External variables were characteristics of food premises such as the size of the operation, number of people served, and organizational factors such as training. Regarding the recent training literature, attempts to bring in new methodologies and new technologies were found such as multimedia case studies, cognitive word association, behavior-focused training, wearable technology, and simulation games. Among the theories utilized, knowledge, attitude, and practices were applied most frequently to explain hygiene practices. In particular, this review highlights the important fact that internal and external factors that affect hygiene practices should be considered to maintain good hygiene practices.

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