Research – Biofilm Formation by Pathogenic Bacteria: Applying a Staphylococcus aureus Model to Appraise Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention

MDPI

Staphylococcus

Carried in the nasal passages by up to 30% of humans, Staphylococcus aureus is recognized to be a successful opportunistic pathogen. It is a frequent cause of infections of the upper respiratory tract, including sinusitis, and of the skin, typically abscesses, as well as of food poisoning and medical device contamination. The antimicrobial resistance of such, often chronic, health conditions is underpinned by the unique structure of bacterial biofilm, which is the focus of increasing research to try to overcome this serious public health challenge. Due to the protective barrier of an exopolysaccharide matrix, bacteria that are embedded within biofilm are highly resistant both to an infected individual’s immune response and to any treating antibiotics. An in-depth appraisal of the stepwise progression of biofilm formation by S. aureus, used as a model infection for all cases of bacterial antibiotic resistance, has enhanced understanding of this complicated microscopic structure and served to highlight possible intervention targets for both patient cure and community infection control. While antibiotic therapy offers a practical means of treatment and prevention, the most favorable results are achieved in combination with other methods. This review provides an overview of S. aureus biofilm development, outlines the current range of anti-biofilm agents that are used against each stage and summarizes their relative merits. View Full-Text

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