Research – Growth and Survival of Foodborne Pathogens during Soaking and Drying of Almond (Prunus dulcis) Kernels

Journal of Food Protection


The practice of soaking almonds prior to consumption is popular both commercially and at home. The food safety implications of soaking almonds was investigated through analysis of blogs and videos (n = 85 recipes) to identify both the reasons for soaking almonds and the common practices employed. Among the recipes analyzed, the most common reasons for soaking almonds (94.1%) were perceived benefits such as improved digestion and nutrient uptake. Most recipes (34.1%) suggested soaking at “room temperature” for times that ranged from 4 to 24 h or, more commonly, “overnight” (51.8%). Postsoaking drying instructions were provided in 40 recipes (47.1%). Among those providing a drying temperature (31.8%), 85% specified 66°C and lower. To evaluate the growth of foodborne pathogens during almond soaking, separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were inoculated onto raw almonds or into the soak water (almonds-to-water ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 [w/v]). Populations were monitored during soaking at 15, 18, and 23°C for up to 24 h, and during postsoak drying at 66°C for 14 h (for Salmonella only). At 15°C and a 1:1 almond:water ratio, no significant population increase (P > 0.05) was observed between 0 and 24 h for any of the pathogens. At 18°C, increases of 0.63, 1.70, and 0.88 log CFU per sample were observed over 24 h for populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella increased by 3.48, 3.22, and 3.94 log CFU per sample, respectively, after 24 h at 23°C. When soaked almonds were dried for 14 h at 66°C, moisture and water activity decreased from 40 to ∼6% and 0.99 to 0.60, respectively, but no significant reduction in Salmonella populations was observed. Recommendations for using shorter times (<8 h) and cooler temperatures (≤15°C) should reduce the potential for foodborne pathogens, if present, to grow during soaking of almonds.

  • Online recipes described soaking conditions that would support growth of pathogens.
  • Foodborne pathogens were able to multiply in almonds soaked at 18 and 23°C.
  • Pathogen populations significantly increased after 8 h of soaking at 23°C.
  • Foodborne pathogens did not multiply in almonds soaked at 15°C for 24 h.
  • Drying soaked almonds at 66°C for 14 h did not reduce populations of Salmonella.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s