In July 2017, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, identified a cluster of five Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate + (Java) clinical isolates that were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Initial questionnaires administered by state and local health department investigators indicated animal exposure as a possible source of infection, with all five patients reporting snake exposure. An outbreak investigation was initiated to identify the source of infection.
A case was defined as isolation of Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate + (Java) from June 17, 2017, to July 23, 2017, with a PFGE enzyme pattern indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. A snake-specific questionnaire regarding snake type, snake purchase location, and reptile food, including feeder rodents, was developed and administered to patients by state and local health department investigators. In addition, animal and environmental sampling was conducted at patient residences. Traceback of patients’ snakes was conducted by contacting snake purchase locations to identify common suppliers. Finally, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on clinical, environmental, animal, and pet food isolates to further characterize their genetic relatedness, measured in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences (1).
Five cases were identified in four states: one each in Arizona, Oklahoma, and Oregon, and two in Indiana from different households with no epidemiologic link. Median patient age was 10 years (range = <1–40 years), and four were female. No patient was hospitalized, and no deaths occurred. Five patients or their proxies completed the snake-specific questionnaire, four of whom reported exposure to a ball python in the residence. Ball python sampling occurred in the Arizona, Oregon, and one of the Indiana patient residences by sampling the python cloaca, environment, water, and bedding. Feeder rodent sampling occurred in the Arizona and Indiana patient residences. No common suppliers of either ball pythons or feeder rodents were identified by traceback.