Research -Microbiological Safety of Animal Wastes Processed by Physical Heat Treatment: An Alternative To Eliminate Human Pathogens in Biological Soil Amendments as Recommended by the Food Safety Modernization Act

Food Protection Journal


Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure. Physical heat treatments can be considered an effective method to inactivate pathogens in animal wastes. However, microbial inactivation in animal wastes can be affected by many factors, such as composition of animal wastes, type and physiological stage of the tested microorganism, and heat source. Following some current processing guidelines for physical heat treatments may not be adequate for completely eliminating pathogens from animal wastes. Therefore, this article primarily reviews the microbiological safety and economic value of physically heat-treated animal wastes as biological soil amendments.


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