The antibacterial activity of chitosan (CS) nanospheres, in comparison with other physical forms, was investigated against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, which are 2 foodborne harmful pathogens. Results showed that the antibacterial efficacy of CS nanospheres: (1) was superior to that displayed by CS in powder and solution form; (2) was higher against S. aureus than against Salmonella Typhimurium; and (3) was dependent on the temperature and pH of the medium depending on the strain. For S. Typhimurium, a higher activity was displayed at 37 °C, in which 99.9% of the population was eradicated independently of the pH, followed by 20 °C and 7 °C, in which acidic pH conditions favored a higher susceptibility of bacteria to the effect of CS. On the contrary, S. aureus was less susceptible to the pH and temperature conditions of the medium, and no statistical difference in the antibacterial effect was observed for pH 5.8 and 8.0 at 20 °C and 37 °C. However, at 7 °C a slightly higher activity was displayed at pH 5.8 than at 8.0.
Chitosan (CS) nanospheres are highly effective against pathogen bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, which are commonly found in food spoilage. Contrary to other CS forms, CS nanospheres are potential candidates for incorporation into food packaging and food safety given their high antibacterial activity at pH and temperature conditions of food preservation.