When raw milk, colostrum, dairy products or colostrum products are subjected to a heat treatment, such as pasteurisation or ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment, the treatment must comply with the conditions laid down in the Regulation (CE) 853/2004. According to this Regulation, if pasteurization is used for these products, food operators must ensure that the following specifications are met: a high temperature for a short period of time (at least 72 ° C for 15 seconds), a low temperature for a long period of time (at least 63 °C for 30 minutes), or any other combination of temperature and time conditions to obtain an equivalent effect.
There is a growing interest in the use of HPP as an alternative treatment to pasteurization and UHT because it is expected to maintain properties closer to those of raw milk and colostrum.
According to the data collected and evaluated by EFSA, it was determined that HPP could not achieve logarithmic reductions (log 10 ) equivalent to those achieved by thermal pasteurization of milk (more than 10 log 10 ) or by UHT (log 10). more than 12 log 10 ). However, HPP conditions could be identified to achieve reductions equivalent to those recommended by international agencies as benchmarks of performance criteria for pasteurization (eg, reductions of 5, 6, 7, and 8 log 10 ). ).From the mathematical models obtained, several examples are provided of the minimum requirements (combination of pressure and time) of the HPP that, with a high certainty, would allow to reach the different criteria of operation.
Under the most stringent industrially used HPP conditions (600 MPa for 6 minutes), reductions of 5 log 10 for Mycobacterium bovis , 8 log 10 for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (ECTS or STEC),Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella spp . and Campylobacter spp. , and 6 log 10 for Staphyloccoccus aureus .
According to EFSA, no data were found on the impact of HPP on the reduction of Brucella melitensis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and therefore no conclusions could be drawn for these. dangers.
EFSA evaluated several milk and colostrum compounds to determine their suitability as indicators of HPP efficacy, including the endogenous alkaline milk phosphatase enzyme (ALP) – widely used to verify the proper thermal pasteurization of milk. γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), xanthine oxidase (XoX), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) or lactoferrin (LF).
In view of the available evidence, EFSA concludes that none of the evaluated indicators can currently be proposed as an appropriate indicator for use under the commercially viable technological conditions of HPP applied to industry (400 and 600 MPa for 1.5-6 minutes) and recommends further in-depth studies to determine the suitability of such compounds as indicators of HPP efficacy.